Bakairi

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Die Bakairi sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Die Eigenbezeichnung lautet Kurâ, der Name Bakairi ist seit dem Jahrhundert nachgewiesen. Im Jahr wurden Stammesmitglieder registriert. Die Bakairi (weitere Bezeichnungen: Bakaïri bzw. Bacairis) sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. Bakairi. Die Bakairi (weitere Bezeichnungen: Bakaïri bzw. Bacairis) sind ein indigenes südamerikanisches Volk im brasilianischen Bundesstaat Mato Grosso. For over twenty-five years, Debra Picchi has documented how the Bakairí Indians have addressed and endured change. This up-close portrayal of how a. Denn am Wasserfall des Paranatinga ist der älteste Wohnsitz der Bakairi, dessen sie sich noch entsinnen, und von dem sie später zum Teil an den Schingu.

Bakairi

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Time and space are related through the cycle of a vital substance called ekuru. Present in all living beings, inanimate and animate, it is obtained through food, making itself present in the blood.

Without it, blood - yunu - coagulates, which is followed by death. This substance is eliminated through body fluids, residues, secretions and excrement which, in contact with the earth, is reprocessed by the plants.

In its free and pure form, only the plants contain it. In the interval between contact with the earth and reprocesssing, all ekuru that is eliminated keeps within itself the properties of whoever expelled it.

Their preferred places are the abandoned houses, dark places. They appear to the living, frightening them, which causes fainting and sicknesses.

The terrestrial kadopy, which are residues of the body residues, have an ephemeral existence , in contrast with the iamyra , which are essence.

Space is polluted by infestations of kadopy and iamyra , making it inhospitable, and unhealthy. This is one of the reasons for Bakairi dispersion and mobility.

In the rainy season, given the high level of humidity, the ekuru penetrates the soil more quickly, which is regenerated. In the dry season, however, the lack of humidity makes the ekuru cycle become extremely slow.

Only on the banks of the rivers and streams is its rhythm more rapid, which results in more fertile terrain, less polluted, more adequate for life.

Thus they explain the existence of different spatial domains that they call iduanary and pojianary, "region of the forest" and "region of grass", respectively.

They basically extract the ekuru necessary for life from the forest and the rivers. In the forests bordering lakes, ponds, or rivers, they practice agriculture and group hunting.

Due to the dangers associated with these forests, the presence of members of the female sex is forbidden before the earth has been prepared for planting.

Among these dangers, the most notable is Ynhangõnrom, a monstrous supernatural being, "lord" of the forests, who has an enormous breast that he squeezes, pouring out a lethal milk on those who destroy the forest.

He has an assistant Karowi, a little, but horrendous being. In the more closed forests one can encounter the iamyra which seek shelter in it when surprised on this earth by the day.

The contact with these supernatural beings is the cause of bio-psychical disorders and imminent death. To pronounce the names of the dead signifies evoking them, which must be avoided until they are put back into circulation.

Associated with the aquatic domain, there are many supernatural beings. Of the supernatural beings related to this domain, the Bakairi most fear the subaquatic iamyra , which can assume the forms of fish.

With so many dangers, the aquatic domain is essentially a male realm. Bakairi mythology is very rich, with many elements in common to upper Xingu mythology.

It narrates the origin of the world, of the twin demiurges, the rivers, the day and night, the sun, as well as the transferral of goods that belonged to the animal world- among them, manioc, the hammock — to the Bakairi.

The great rituals of kado remember, through chants, the essential part of this process, as though recreating the world.

In Bakairi daily life one can observe various rituals that do not, properly speaking, obey any ritual calendar, but rather the contingencies of life, being associated above all with marriage, sickness, first menstruation and death, the last few mentioned implying dietary and social restrictions.

Besides these, there is a complex of sacred and pan-community rites, called kado , the scheduling of which is concentrated in the dry season.

Among these there is the Anji Itabienly , the "Baptizing of the Corn", which marks the beginning of the Bakairi year and the cycle of the ekuru.

It is held at the time of the first harvest of corn, still green, in January or February. There are 23 ritual masks, each representing the tutelary spirit of a species of fish, aquatic animal, and riverine bird.

Finally, there is, from time to time, the sadyry, ear-piercing ritual for adolescents of the male sex. These pan-community rituals have elements in common, such as male and female body paintings, done with jenipapo and urucum, collective hunting and fishing parties, collective meals.

Each one of these rituals is presided over by the leader of the local group which promotes it and by the shaman, on the spiritual plane.

The rites of the kado constitute a tribute to the dead, who control the natural cycles, including the seasons of the year and of the ekuru, vital substance.

Besides these rituals, the Bakairi annually hold pan-community June festivals, which are equally important for their social cohesion.

In a world that is so full of supernatural beings, sources of sicknesses, the shamans have a vital role. They can penetrate into the bodies of animals, of the sick.

They know no barriers to communication: they speak the language of the iamyra, the animals, tutelary entities or not.

Besides acting in the case of sicknesses, and the loss of objects — which they have the power to locate — among other things, their participation in the pan-community rituals is absolutely necessary.

Through them cosmic forces are rebalanced and life is led back to order. Before the Bakairi received only rapid mention on the part of members of bandeira expeditions, explorers of the north of Mato Grosso and administrators of the then province.

It was only after the expeditions of Karl von den Steinen to the Xingu, in and , that the information about them gets more dense.

Two books of his are worth noting: Central Brazil: Expedition of for the exploration of the Xingu and Among the Aborigines of Central Brazil , both classics in South American ethnology.

They contain precious information on the Eastern and Western Bakairi, their history, language, social organization, mythology, rituals and relations with other indigenous peoples.

Various other expeditions followed those of von den Steinem, especially those by Max Schmidt, who recorded, among other things, important data on the migrations of the Bakairi of the Xingu to the Paranatinga and the relations they established with the regional population, including with the SPI agents.

Kalervo Oberg and Fernando Altenfelder Silva, who were among the Bakairi in the midth Century, published articles on social organization and ritual seclusion, respectively.

There are five academic monographs on the Bakairi. The first, by Edir Pina de Barros , brings together information on their history and social organization, their relations with missionaries, SPI agents and rural land-holders of the region.

In the light of this data, she analyzes the question of identity and ethnicity. In her doctoral thesis , this same researcher presents dense information on their history, cosmology, social organization, naming practices, rituals and shamanism.

Various of her articles have been published in anthropological journals. Another reference is the thesis by Debra Sue Picchi , which focuses on the impact of mechanized agriculture on the traditional subsistence system, nutritional status and health.

To analyze this question, historical, cultural, and above all, ecological factors were considered. There is also the classic study of language by Capistrano de Abreu made on the basis of information of an informant brought from Paranatinga to Rio de Janeiro, in the final decade of the 19th Century.

There are also the studies done by missionaries of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, since the s. Noteworthy among these are the translations of Biblical texts and readers for literacy in the maternal language.

Under their auspices, the Bakairi have been producing texts in their own language, some of them published. The Bakairi teachers are producing texts, in the context of their training as teachers.

Toggle navigation. From Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. Photo: Edir Pina de Barros, Language The Bakairi language belongs to the Karib family.

Year Total Os Bacaeris. Os Bakairi. Os povos do Alto Xingu. Tese de Doutorado A reconquista da Pachola. Aconteceu Especial, 17 The Bacairi of Northern of Mato Grosso.

Southwesten Journal of Anthropology, s. Primitives peoples of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Museum Journal, s. Impact of an industrial agricultural project on the Bakairi indians of central Brazil.

Sometimes the Indians are allowed to slaughter a steer; the beef is then evenly distributed around the village. Some Bakairi also raise chickens.

Industrial Arts. A variety of products are made to use, give as gifts, or sell to visiting ranchers. Men carve wooden or bark ritual masks, manufacture shell necklaces, make baskets used in agricultural tasks, and carve bows and arrows used in hunting and fishing.

Women weave cotton and palm hammocks, bind together mats used in processing bitter manioc, sew dresses and shirts with sewing machines, and make palm costumes used by the ritual-mask dancers.

People infrequently enter the reservation to trade because authorization from the Brazilian government is required to do so.

Sugar, candy, flour, cloth, thread, kerosene, fishhooks, and ammunition are available. Division of Labor. A clear distinction between work done by men and women exists, although there is some overlap, especially in gardening.

Men are responsible for hunting, fishing, clearing land for gardens, harvesting garden foods, working outside the reservation on nearby ranches to earn cash, manufacturing certain goods such as baskets and bows, and dancing with ritual masks.

Women do most of the child rearing, especially of infants. They also plant and harvest the gardens, process food, cook, wash clothes, fish, manufacture such goods as hammocks, and keep the house clean.

Land Tenure. Bakairi lands are communally owned. The average size of a garden is about 4, square meters. Total land under annual production in the gallery forest areas is calculated to be The industrial-agricultural project of the s doubled the amount of land under cultivation.

This land is also communally owned. Kin Groups and Descent. Nuclear families live together in separate households.

At certain times extended families live together. A larger kin group consists of relatives who live in separate households but who are linked together consanguineally.

They provide support in such production activities as clearing land and in family emergencies such as death.

Descent groups such as lineages and clans are absent. Genealogies are shallow. People inherit bilaterally. Kinship Terminology. Bifurcate-merging terms are used for individuals in the first ascending generation.

Iroquois rules are used for individuals of one's own generation. Relative ages of males, but not of females, are marked by the use of distinct terms in one's generation.

Village elders are lumped into two categories, one male and one female. Children in the first and second descending generations are also grouped under male and female terms.

Polygynous marriages were previously allowed, but all marriages are now monogamous. Village endogamy exists, although marriages with other Indians or with someone from outside the reservation do occur occasionally.

Extended-family exogamy is also practiced in that cross cousins, but not parallel cousins, are possible marriage partners.

Parents are normally responsible for the selection of their child's spouse. Temporary matrilocal residence follows marriage, during which time the son-inlaw assists the wife's father.

This arrangement often ends after the birth of the first child. Divorce is acceptable but rare. Wives leave their husbands if the men impregnate another woman or if physical abuse occurs.

Men leave their wives if the women refuse to cook or wash their clothes. Domestic Unit. The household is the domestic unit.

Children, aging parents of one of the spouses, and unmarried adults make up the peripheral individuals.

The majority of households are composed of between three and six individuals with a mode and median of four individuals.

Each is expected to contribute to the production process by farming, hunting, fishing, food processing, or doing other chores.

Related households maintain strong ties. Young married couples living in other households frequently visit their parents. Adult male siblings farm and hunt together, and adult female relatives bathe and wash clothes in the river together.

Ownership of land or specific hunting or fishing grounds does not exist. Personal property is divided among the surviving family members. Ritual masks are handed down from mother to daughter.

Mothers care for infants. Older children are raised by both parents, and siblings and grandparents participate in daily child care. Older women past the age of childbearing frequently adopt children of relations.

Physical punishment is used in child rearing, with children taught the values of hard work, team spirit, and respect for their elders.

The Bakairi are an egalitarian society. He has limited powers, mostly of a persuasive nature. Social Organization.

Bakairi society lacks classes and economic specialization; it is organized on the basis of age and gender. Political Organization.

Bakairi society is politically organized around three or four clusters of fluid composition. These political factions are dominated by men and older women from specific kinship groupings.

Alliances between kin groups occur regularly. Shamans are important informal community leaders. They persuade people to support them in political disputes.

Central headquarters are located in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil , in the Ministry of the Interior. Bakairi men travel to the regional offices several times a year to meet with foundation officials.

The foundation attempts to provide medical treatment and educational facilities for the Indians, with varying degrees of success. A representative of this organization sometimes stays on the reservation, especially if a new project is being organized or if conflict between Indians and Brazilians occurs.

Social Control. Social control is maintained by a value system that emphasizes cooperation, harmony, and peace. A series of gradational responses is employed to discipline those who deviate from the norm: the elders of the individual's family talk to the deviate; then overt gossip is used; a shaman tries to exorcise the spirits that are supposedly causing the deviant behaviors; finally, the person is threatened by a group of male villagers.

Rule breakers frequently flee the reservation. Warfare between the Bakairi and other Indian groups is absent. Before the pacification of the Xavante Indians in the mids, raiding between Xavante and Bakairi took place.

Kayabi and Bakairi relations were also strained during that period. Warfare between Brazilians and the Bakairi is also absent, although disagreements, for example over who may use indigenous lands, sometimes erupt into open conflict between Indians and nearby ranchers.

FUNAI normally steps in to settle such disputes before violence erupts. Religious Beliefs. The Bakairi subscribe to animistic beliefs, although some claim to be Christian and make efforts to have their children baptized.

The Bakairi believe in spirits that populate the natural world. They also believe in twin culture heroes who are identified with the sun and the moon.

A degree of syncretism between animistic and Christian beliefs is evident in that the Christian God is merged with the sun culture hero by some Bakairi.

Religious Practitioners. Shamans are religious semispecialists who have special relations with spirits, allowing them to cure the sick or to cause illness in enemies.

Shamans are older males who train for over a year before assuming their duties. Their apprenticeship consists of fasting, self-imposed physical trials, and the use of tobacco to induce trances.

There are three shamans in the Bakairi village. Ritual-mask dancing takes place between the months of March and November.

Men wear huge painted masks and palm costumes while they dance around the village chanting. A corn festival marks the beginning of the corn harvest in January.

The anteater dance is performed at that time. Every four or five years boys between the ages of 14 and 19 participate in a rite during which their ears are pierced; this is considered a male ritual, and women are not allowed to attend.

The first four festivals occur in quick succession in June and July. Music, dancing, and feasting mark these holy days.

The men carve and paint large ritual masks. The women sew palm costumes worn with the masks. Chants used when wearing the masks are handed down from generation to generation, but artistic improvisation and delivery are valued.

Some of the younger men who have worked on ranches play the guitar and sing Portuguese songs. Two types of illness are recognized: those attributable to contact with non-Indians and those resulting from sorcery.

Non-Indian diseases are treated with Western medicine, whereas other types are treated by shamans. Death and Afterlife. When a death occurs, villagers visit the home of the deceased and cry and wail.

The corpse is then wrapped in his or her hammock and buried a short distance from the village. The grave is not marked, and it is not visited afterward.

Belief in afterlife does not exist. Kin of the dead person are not encouraged to mourn. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Washington, D.

Oberg, K. Perniilo, V. Von den Steinen, K.

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